Pharmacology is the branch of science which deals with the medication action. A medication may be extensively characterized as any synthetic, artificial, characteristic, or endogenous atom which applies organic chemistry and in addition physiological impact on the cell, tissue, organ, or living being. Significantly it's the investigation of the associations that happen between a living body and chemicals that influence typical or abnormal organic chemistry capability and substances which are having therapeutic properties, they are concluded as pharmaceuticals.
Toxicology is the scientific study of adverse effects that occur in living organisms because of chemicals. It involves perceptive and reporting symptoms, mechanisms, detection and treatment of poisonous substances, specially respect to the poisoning of humans. It includes environmental agents and chemical compounds found in nature, likewise as pharmaceutical compounds that are synthesized for medical use by humans.
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal that covers preclinical and clinical studies on the regulatory effects of various agents on immunocompetent cells, as well as the immunotoxicity exerted by xenobiotics and drugs. Hence, the journal encompasses a broad range of pathologies (e.g. acute and chronic infections, allergy, autoimmunity, cancer, degenerative disorders, inflammation, and primary and secondary immunodeficiencies). It is published by Informa.
The pharmaceutical and Toxicological industry is directly impacted by the research conducted with prescription drugs, vaccines, and OTC drugs being manufactured based on findings from the study of life sciences. Clinical trials are conducted to ensure that products being developed are tested on how well they work on individuals affected by the diseases or conditions they are created to treat.
The Department of Clinical Pharmacology is dedicated to define disease processes, understanding both drug actions and adverse reactions, developing novel therapeutic strategies for intervention and optimizing the benefit–risk ratio of current and new drugs. We are based within the Institute of Translational Medicine, whose overall aim is to take basic scientific understanding and translate it into innovations for the benefit of patients, the public and health systems across the world.
Pharmacology for nurses is one in the entire foremost necessary component in nursing education. It is the sector in science that associated with management of medicine as per the disease profile of the patient. The pharmaceutical business is directly wedged by the analysis conducted with pharmaceuticals, vaccines and over-the-counter medicine. Through the world, registered nurses play an important role in administering medication to patients in a typical busy hospital environment. This duty needs a massive extent of effort on behalf of nurses to own a solid understanding of pharmacology and possibly fatal drug interactions.
Tropical medicine is the branch of medicine is dedicated to treatment, care and cure of tropical diseases, which are commonly occurring in developing countries due to lack of hygiene, knowledge etc. The most commonly occurring tropical diseases are Chagas disease, Dengue, Helminths, African trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Malaria, Sexually transmitted infections etc. Infectious diseases are disorders caused by pathogenic microorganisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person. Some are transmitted by bites from insects or animals. Medications used to treat infectious diseases includes antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, antiprotozoals, and antihelminthics.
Biochemical pharmacology is concerned with the effects of drugs on biochemical pathways underlying the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes and the subsequent therapeutic and the toxicological processes. The pharmaceutical process is, however, outside the realms of biochemical pharmacology.
Ophthalmic diseases include both those analogous to systemic diseases (eg, inflammation, infection, neuronal degeneration) and not analogous (eg, cataract, myopia). Many anterior segment diseases are treated pharmacologically through eye drops, which have an implied therapeutic index of local therapy.
Cardiovascular Pharmacology deals with the study of the effects of drugs upon the heart or circulatory system. It mainly contributes to the safety profile of potential new drugs and provides pharmacological data that can be used for optimization of further compounds and the ultimate selection of compounds suitable for clinical development. The cardiac drugs affect the function of the heart in three main ways. They can affect the force of contraction of the heart muscle (inotropic effects), they can affect the frequency of the heart beat or heart rate (chronotropic effects) or they can affect the regularity of the heart beat.
Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system, and the neural mechanisms through which they influence behavior.
Psychopharmacology is the study of the use of medications in treating mental disorders. The complexity of this field requires continuous study in order to keep current with new advances. Psychopharmacologists need to understand all the clinically relevant principles of pharmacokinetics (what the body does to medication) and pharmacodynamics
Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals. For the treatment of human diseases, nasal and pulmonary routes of drug delivery are gaining increasing importance. These routes provide promising alternatives to parenteral drug delivery particularly for peptide and protein therapeutics.
Environmental toxicology is the multidisciplinary branch of science with links the environment and the toxic chemicals. The reason for the environmental toxicity is enormous and they may be the pollution which is of different types and the industrial waste. The harmful toxic substances released from the industries and the industrial waste result in the environmental toxicity. Ecotoxicology is the recent emerging concept in the environmental toxicology.
Clinical toxicology is the branch of science which deals with the removing of the poisonous substances or harmful chemicals from the body of any organism. Clinical toxicologists are the people who are expertized in the field of detoxification. Medical toxicology is a part of the toxicology and deals with the removal of the harmful toxins from the body. The poisoning may be intentional or unintentional but the adverse effects may lead to the lethal damage to the organism. Both clinical and medical toxicologists play an important role in detoxification.
Molecular and biochemical toxicology is the advancing branch of toxicology which deals at the molecular and cellular levels. Molecular techniques have provided the mechanistic information about the role of gene function in the interaction of xenobiotics and living organisms. There are a number of the advances in the field of molecular and biochemical toxicology.
Toxicologic pathology concerns the effect of potentially noxious products on the body. The question being asked about the product usually involves its safety for humans or its efficacy as a medicament, but can also involve exposure to an environmental toxicant under “natural” conditions. The typical context for most toxicologic pathologists in the pharmaceutical and most academic research situations is intentionally controlled exposure of laboratory animals to xenobiotics as surrogates for humans. The animal phase of toxicological studies is very comprehensive in the pharmaceutical setting, and also often less so but nevertheless rigorous in the academic setting.
Forensic toxicology is the use of toxicology and other disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology and clinical chemistry to aid medical or legal investigation of death, poisoning, and drug use. The primary concern for forensic toxicology is not the legal outcome of the toxicological investigation or the technology utilized, but rather the obtainment and interpretation of results.
The pharmacotoxicology mainly deals with prevention and control of pharmaceutically induced adverse health effects .The pharmacotoxicology is separated into two categories that is: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics .
In broad sense, therapeutics means serving and caring for the patients in a complete manner, inhibiting disease as well as treating particular problems. Exercise, diet, and mental factors are therefore essential to the prevention as well as the management of disease processes. Particular measures that are employed to treat actual symptoms includes, the use of medicine to get rid of pain or treat infection, surgery to remove unhealthy tissue or replace poorly functioning or non-functioning organs with fully operating ones and counselling to relieve emotional distress.
Orthopaedic surgeons should have a sound working knowledge of the indications for, and the actions and adverse effects of, any therapeutic drug that they prescribe on a regular basis. Knowledge concerning the interaction between medications and the treatment and maintenance of orthopaedic health is essential for the safe and effective application of rehabilitation interventions.
Food and nutritional toxicology is the part of toxicology which deals with the various food substances which cause the toxicity to the body. The food toxicity may be a result of the pesticides and herbicides used during the process of cultivation. The nutritional toxicity may also result in the toxic response to the body. Nutritional toxicology is a speciality that combines the backgrounds and research approaches of nutrition toxicology.
Adverse drug reactions can be considered a form of toxicity or enhanced drug effects that occur during appropriate use (eg, when drug metabolism is temporarily inhibited by a disorder or another drug). In the US, 3 to 7% of all hospitalizations are due to adverse drug reactions.
Drug Safety heavily focuses on adverse drug reactions which are defined as any response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, including lack of efficacy. Medication errors such as overdose, and misuse and abuse of a drug as well as drug exposure during pregnancy and breastfeeding, are also of interest, even without an adverse event, because they may result in an adverse drug reaction.
In Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics track we will discuss about the Rational drug management of cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders, and Management of psychiatric disorders and autoimmune disorders. Along with clinical trials Bioavailability and bioequivalence studies also plays major role in clinical research.
Pharmaceutical nanotechnology has a new scope of study with better opportunities in different areas of diagnosis and treatment. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology has developed as a new area of interest having a great potential as carrier for many potent drugs and diagnostics.
Clinical Trials on various diseases include Clinical Trials in long chronic diseases like AIDS, Benign and Malignant Tumours, Cardiovascular diseases, Diabetes, Clinical Trials on Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies, Neurological, Physiological and Psychological Disorders
The Industrial Pharmacy includes every sector that is involved in and pharmaceutical sector which includes manufacturing development, marketing, and distribution, and also quality assurances associated with the process. This helps in organizing the entire process while looking out for any discrepancies while developing these products.The development of vaccines also plays a major role in improving the company's portfolio of developing novel products.
Pharmaceutical Microbiology involves studying the microorganisms that are being used in the production of a pharmaceutical product. As microorganisms may be toxic or non-toxic, they may gravely affect the immune system, and the development of these drugs requires careful preparation and development so as they cannot activate their properties but their medicinal activity once it enters the human system